Jack Smalligan (MA, Public Policy, University of Michigan) is a senior policy fellow in the Income and Benefits Policy Center at the Urban Institute. He analyzes the interactions across disability, retirement, and paid leave policy. Previously, Mr. Smalligan was deputy associate director at the Office of Management and Budget. As director of the Education, Income Maintenance, and Labor Division, he was responsible for oversight and analysis of programs in the U.S. Departments of Education and Labor, the Social Security Administration, and low-income assistance programs in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration on Children and Families, U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service, and the U.S. Treasury (earned income tax credit). Over 27 years, Mr. Smalligan served five administrations, working extensively on Social Security issues for four of them. He developed policies that have been incorporated into many pieces of legislation, including the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement of 1993, the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. In 2012, Mr. Smalligan was a guest scholar at the Brookings Institution, where he analyzed the Social Security disability programs and with Jeff Liebman published recommendations that helped influence the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015. In late 2020, Mr. Smalligan served as a member of the Social Security Administration Agency Review Team for the Biden-Harris Transition Team. Mr. Smalligan co-facilitated the discussion of the “Design of Demonstrations” presentation at Lessons Learned from SSA Demonstrations: A State of the Science Meeting.